The historical perspective is useful for establishing trends in types of msw generated and in the ways it is managed. Characterization of municipal solid waste in the united states. Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, us epa. This chapter provides an overview of waste generation, waste stream composition, and incineration in the context of waste management. Environmental protection agencys epa waste management hierarchy. Epa waste characterization studies, and also a survey of. Composition and characterization of municipal solid waste. This research discerns how msw composition influences the heating value and air pollution for the cocombustion of coal with msw using five msw composition scenarios, four of which were derived by a reduction of plastics, organics, paper, or a combination thereof, as compared to the national average msw composition. A listing of all nonattainment areas grouped under common area names, including area classification, county counts, and 2010 census populations. Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Environmental, economic, and energy assessment of the. In addition to msw, the 2014 update study also included nrp. Environmental protection agency epa characterizing municipal solid waste msw in the united states. Sources of solid waste msw, municipal solid waste, is the primary focus of this course, which excludes industrial, mining and agricultural wastes.
The report describes the national waste stream based. It may include biodegradable waste, electrical and electronic waste, and composite waste such as clothing, hazardous waste paints, spray, and chemicals, and medical waste. Epa600r93122 december 1993 public health, occupational safety, and environmental concerns in municipal solid waste recycling operations environmental criteria and assessment office office of health and environmental assessment u. First, the heat content per unit weight of the waste stream has been steadily increasing.
Epa certification exam preparatory manual 8th edition. Composition of gaseous products co, co 2,ch 4, h 2,propane, propylene, butane, butenes, c5, ethane, etc. Solid waste chapter 11 understanding environmental pollution. It includes information on municipal solid waste msw generation. New msw sampling and characterization methodologies. The epafranklin model the epafranklin model uses a materials flow methodology to estimate msw generationittraces the flow of materials from production, through consumption, and on to disposal. The ash that remains from the msw combustion process is sent to landfills. The municipal solid waste msw produced annually has begun to decrease, e. In addition, the source of municipal solid waste is important. At one time over 50% of the total consumption of cfcs in this country were for aerosols. Cocombustion is a wastetoenergy technology that can use msw and coal as cofuels, offering potential energy recovery and reduced air emissions.
Sources, types and composition of municipal solid waste msw management of msw solid wastes include all solid or semisolid materials that the processor no longer considers of sufficient value to retain. Montgomery county waste composition study summary of. Municipal solid waste msw, commonly known as trash or garbage in the united states and rubbish in britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. There are also construction and demolition debris, municipal sludge, combustion ash, mining and drilling debris, agricultural wastes, industrialprocess wastes including some sludge, hazardous waste, and others. Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, epa archives. Waste sampling waste sample collection was performed on the transfer station floor during the operating hours of the facility and in conformance with astm d5231 92 2003, standard test method for determination of the composition of unprocessed municipal waste. This problem, however, is well known and can be dealt with by means of sound management and policy implementation. The decision makers guide is a practical tool for a preliminary assessment of whether the key crite. The burial of municipal solid waste in landfills is the most common disposal.
Nsf international gratefully acknowledges the following steering committee members for their invaluable contributions to the design and content of this guide. Meanwhile, the time has a great effect on the composition of msw. In the european union, the semantic definition is mixed. Solid waste landfills, second edition 2016 1 part a. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting.
This shows that 46% of municipal solid waste was reported to be organic waste, defined as food scraps, yard or green waste leaves, grass, brush, wood etc. Environmental fact sheet, municipal solid waste generation, recycling and disposal in the united states. Municipal solid waste msw incineration plants tend to be among the most expensive solid waste management options, and they require highly skilled personnel and careful maintenance. Epa 600r93122 december 1993 public health, occupational safety, and environmental concerns in municipal solid waste recycling operations environmental criteria and assessment office office of health and environmental assessment u. It comprises everyday items, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, batteries, and other consumerrelated product forms. The materials composition of containers and packaging in msw in 2017 is shown in figure 17 of the 2017data tables, and additional containers and packaging detail is shown in figure 18. It does not address hazardous and infectious wastes. Recycling rates and composting rates are increasing. Alsakkari 2, mai fouad 3 1 professor of chemical engineering, faculty of enginee ring cairo university, giza, egypt.
Epa publishes updated standards, guidelines for msw. Composition of char char contains elemental carbon along with hydrogen and various inorganic species. Municipal solid waste msw is but one of many wastes. Recycling including composting is encouraged for these materials as well. Msw assessment of students outcomes master of social. Solid waste chapter 11 understanding environmental. Municipal solid waste may contain a variety of pathogens, a source of which is often disposable diapersit has been found that as.
It includes information on municipal solid waste msw generation, recycling, combustion with energy recovery and landfilling. Sources, types and composition of municipal solid waste. A large share of the global msw is categorised as organic waste. Sources of msw include residential waste including waste from multifamily housing and waste from commercial and institutional locations, such as businesses, schools and hospitals. To support municipal solid waste msw characterization efforts, epa conducted a scoping study on food waste and the methods by which they are managed. Fact sheet, formerly called municipal solid waste in the united states. Visit epa s landfill methane outreach program for additional information on how facilities recover energy from landfills. Communities are faced with the challenge of developing wastemanagement approaches from options that include reduction of waste generated, incineration, landfilling, recycling, reuse, 11reuse refers to using a material more than once in its original manufactured.
The chemical composition of the ash varies depending on the original msw feedstock and the combustion process. Table 3 7 physicochemical characteristics of msw in india. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste msw composition in the region of crete 20032004 and msw composition suggested in the. Epa issued final new source performance standards for new, modified and reconstructed municipal solid waste msw landfills. The only outside materials allowed are a temperaturepressure. Present and longterm composition of msw landfill leachate. More than 1 million tons of municipal solid waste msw are generated in asia every day, and this figure is expected to reach 1. The world bank 2012 estimate for global municipal solid waste composition in 2009 is shown in figure 1.
Use of municipal solid waste msw as fuel for electricity generation reduces landfill disposal and can mitigate air quality degradation associated with combustion of conventional fossil fuels. Public health, occupational safety, and environmental. Using data from eia, the environmental protection agency epa, and fuelspecific btu values, eia determined two interrelated trends in the composition of the msw stream. Composition of solid waste component wet weight, lbpercent mc food wastes 9 70 paper 34 6 cardboard 6 5 plastics 7 1 textiles 2 10 rubber 0. Our role to be informed to be skilled to be certified to be in compliance the ozone layer. Municipal solid waste msw is commonly known as trash or garbage. Environmental protection agency epa in 1978, the epa banned the use of cfcs as aerosol propellants except for some medicines.
Estimation of chemical composition of a solid waste sample. The endoflife sustainable food management sfm techniques presented in this scoping study include practices currently used as well as emerging technologies. Each year, epa produces a report called advancing sustainable materials management. The council on social work education cswe mandates that accredited bsw and msw programs widely report student learning outcomes on several practice competencies.
Minnesota msw composition study minnesota pollution. Effects of urbanization on municipal solid waste composition. Environmental protection agency to characterize municipal solid waste msw in the united states. Gasification of nonrecycled plastics from municipal solid waste in the united states prepared for. Federal legislation provisions landfills may not be sited on floodplains, wetlands, earthquake zones, unstable land, or airports birds at site are hazard to aircraft landfills must have liners landfills must have a leachate collection system landfill operators must monitor groundwater for many specified toxic chemicals. Incineration and other hightemperature waste treatment systems are described as thermal treatment. For these reasons, incineration tends to be a good choice only when other, simpler, and less expensive choices are not available. The law requires the test to be a closed book exam. Sources, composition, and properties of solid waste 1. The agency has also issued revised guidelines for reducing emissions from existing msw landfills. Program potential manual and planning packet, published in 1997. This work is licensed under a creative commons attribution. The table 3 7 gives the changing composition of municipal waste over the last two decades and is attributed to the changing life styles and increasing consumerism. Alsakkari 2, mai fouad 3 1 professor of chemical engineering, faculty of enginee ring.
Epa green book data download data dictionary august 31, 2019 1 export file. Municipal solid waste energy information administration. Boulder county waste composition study 2010 pdf 57 pp. Decision makers guide to municipal solid waste incineration. Together with the previous reports, this fact sheet and data. The composition study study included field sorting events between september 27 and november 20, 1999. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators.
It is worth examining the changes in the composition of waste in india in the last two decades. Communities are faced with the challenge of developing wastemanagement approaches from options that include reduction of waste generated, incineration, landfilling, recycling, reuse, 11reuse refers to using a material more. Gasification of nonrecycled plastics from municipal solid. Research efforts, in fact, have also been directed to the novel technologies towards the decomposition of organic waste. August, 20 updated september 20 printed on recycled paper. Methodology for estimating municipal solid waste recycling. General information structure and purpose of these guidelines a landfill is an engineered, inground facility for the safe and secure disposal of societys. Pepper, in environmental and pollution science third edition, 2019. Total msw recycling percent recycling trends in municipal solid waste in 2010 our trash, or municipal solid waste msw, is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. Failure to comply could cost you and your company as much as. Incineration and open burning of waste 2006 ipcc guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories 5. Before starting to plan management activities, it is important to know as much about msw as possible. Environmental protection agencys office of wastewater management and office of compliance.
Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas and heat. The durable goods that epa studies for this report include. The epa franklin model the epa franklin model uses a materials flow methodology to estimate msw generationittraces the flow of materials from production, through consumption, and on to disposal. The generation of waste as a result of urbanization is increasing at a rate surpassing that of urbanization itself hoornweg and bhadatata, 2012. Generation, recovery, and discards of materials in msw, 2012 in millions of tons and percent of generation of each material includes waste from residential, commercial, and institutional sources. This methodology for estimating municipal solid waste msw recycling benefits is intended to provide a clear and complete explanation of the process used by epa to develop estimates of the benefits associated with municipal solid waste msw recycling. Their composition will be reintegrated into the final msw sample composition the remainder of the msw sample without 10 p. Indiana university school of social work routinely collects and analyzes student learning outcomes at both the bsw and msw programs. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and. Minnesota msw composition study minnesota pollution control.1062 27 596 316 383 995 324 672 665 468 1005 241 1158 743 946 680 319 832 1220 1142 152 393 557 664 9 1405 1327 1198 1270 651 1477 1204 1050 574 77 175 665 1388 531 1014 140 26 920 969 839 383 442 276 263 674